Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Production of Pulp, Paper and Board
Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control)
The BAT reference document entitled ‘Production of Pulp, Paper and Board' forms part of a series presenting the results of an exchange of information between EU Member States, the industries concerned, non-governmental organisations promoting environmental protection, and the Commission, to draw up, review and, where necessary, update BAT reference documents as required by Article 13(1) of the Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions.
This document is published by the European Commission pursuant to Article 13(6) of the Directive.
This BREF for the production of pulp, paper and board covers the activities specified in Sections 6.1(a) and 6.1(b) of Annex I to Directive 2010/75/EU, i.e. the integrated and non-integrated production in industrial installations of:
(a) pulp from timber or other fibrous materials;
(b) paper or cardboard with a production capacity exceeding 20 tonnes per day.
In particular, this document covers the following processes and activities:
- chemical pulping: (a) kraft (sulphate) pulping process (b) sulphite pulping process
- mechanical and chemimechanical pulping - processing paper for recycling with and without deinking
- papermaking and related processes
- all recovery boilers and lime kilns operated in pulp and paper mills.
Important issues for the implementation of Directive 2010/75/EU in the pulp, paper and board industry are the emissions to air of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, dust, total reduced sulphur and ammonia; emissions to water of organic carbon, suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and adsorbable organically bound halogens.
The BREF contains nine chapters.
Chapters 1 and 2 provide general information on the pulp, paper and board industry and on the common industrial processes and techniques used within the whole sector.
Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 correspond to the following specific sectors: kraft (sulphate) pulping process, sulphite pulping process, mechanical and chemimechanical pulping, processing of paper for recycling with and without deinking, and papermaking and related processes. For each sector, these five chapters provide information and data concerning the applied processes and techniques; the environmental performance of installations in terms of current emissions, consumption of raw materials, water and energy, and generation of waste; the techniques to prevent or reduce the environmental impact of installations; and the emerging techniques.
In Chapter 8 the BAT conclusions, as defined in Article 3(12) of the Directive, are presented for the pulp, paper and board industry.
Chapter 9 is dedicated to concluding remarks and recommendations for future work regarding the sector.
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