JRC Luglio 2017
This technical report is addressing the issue of chemical constituents and additives used in hydraulic fracturing and their occurrence in wastewaters resulting from hydraulic fracturing operation in the exploration and exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons.
Specific focus is on the types of chemical constituents disclosed as used in hydraulic fracturing fluids by well operators and found in flowback, produced waters and potentially exposed ground and surface water. It gives an overview on typical approaches followed for baseline and or operational monitoring of water quality. With regard to organic constituents it addresses the typically examined compounds and investigates to which extent non-targeted approaches for water monitoring with accurate mass spectrometry can be used to fill existing knowledge gaps.
The concept of a feasibility study for a improved baseline/operational assessment of water quality prior to the start or during and after hydraulic fracturing operations is proposed too.
1.1 The Principle of the Hydraulic Fracturing Process
1.2 The water dimension
1.3 The chemical dimension
2 Geo-chemical baseline assessment
2.1 On-going Horizon 2020 projects
2.2 Peer reviewed scientific literature
3 Occurrence of organic constituents in hydraulic fracturing waters
3.1 Hydraulic fracturing fluids and flowback waters
3.2 Produced waters
3.3 Pertinent surface and groundwaters
4 The challenge of baseline assessments
4.1 Execution of pilot campaign
4.2 Analytical determinations
4.3 Chemical constituents
4.4 Next steps and perspectives
List of abbreviations and definitions
List of figures
List of tables
Fonte: Commissione Europea